Resolution Conf. 12.11 (Rev. CoP16)

Standard nomenclature

RECALLING Resolution Conf. 11.22, adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its 11th meeting (Gigiri, 2000);

NOTING that biological nomenclature is dynamic;

AWARE that the names of the genera and species of several families are in need of standardization and that the current lack of a standard reference with adequate information decreases the effectiveness of the implementation of CITES in conserving the many species that are listed in the Appendices;

RECOGNIZING that the taxonomy used in the Appendices to the Convention will be most useful to the Parties if standardized by nomenclatural references;

AWARE that the former Nomenclature Committee identified names of taxa used in the Appendices to the Convention that should be changed to reflect accepted use in biology;

NOTING that these changes should be adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention;

RECOGNIZING that there are several taxa included in the Appendices of which domesticated forms exist, and that in several cases the Parties have chosen to discriminate between the wild form and the domesticated form by applying a name that differs from the name cited in the standard nomenclature for the protected form;

RECOGNIZING that, in the case of new proposals for listing in the Appendices, the Parties should use adopted standard references whenever available;

CONSIDERING the great practical difficulties involved in recognizing many of the subspecies at present listed in the Appendices when they appear in trade, and the need to weigh ease of subspecies identification against reliability of information on geographic source, for enforcement purposes;

ACKNOWLEDGING the desirability of harmonizing, to the extent possible, the species nomenclature used by the biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements and noting the endorsement of this objective by the chairs of the scientific advisory bodies of biodiversity-related conventions;


AGREES that species of fungi are covered by the Convention;


a)    a subspecies be proposed for inclusion in the Appendices only if it is generally recognized as a valid taxon, and easily identifiable in the traded form;

b)    where there are identification difficulties, the problem be approached by either including the entire species in Appendix I or Appendix II or by circumscribing the range of the subspecies warranting protection and listing the populations within this area on a country basis;

c)    where there are domesticated forms of listed taxa, the Animals and Plants Committees recommend names for the wild and domestic forms;

d)    when submitting a proposal to amend the Appendices to the Convention, the proponent identify the reference used to describe the entity being proposed;

e)    upon receiving proposals to amend the Appendices to the Convention, the Secretariat seek, where appropriate, the advice of the Animals and Plants Committees on the correct names to use for the species or other taxa in question;

f)    whenever a change in the name of a taxon included in the Appendices is proposed, the Secretariat, in consultation with the Animals or Plants Committee, determine whether this change would alter the scope of protection for fauna or flora under the Convention. In the case where the scope of a taxon is redefined, the Animals or Plants Committee shall evaluate whether acceptance of the taxonomic change would cause additional species to be included in the Appendices or listed species to be deleted from the Appendices and, if that is the case, the Depositary Government should be requested to submit a proposal to amend the Appendices in accordance with the recommendation of the Animals or Plants Committee, so that the original intent of the listing is retained. Such proposals should be submitted for consideration at the next regular meeting of the Conference of the Parties, at which the recommendations of the Animals and Plants Committees will be considered;

g)   if the Animals or Plants Committee proposes nomenclatural changes relating to taxa included in Appendix‑III, they should advise the Secretariat whether these changes would also result in changes in distribution that would affect the determination of which countries would be required to issue certificates of origin;

h)    if there is conflict regarding the choice of taxonomic authority for taxa for which no standard references have been adopted by the Conference of the Parties, countries authorizing export of animals or plants (or parts or derivatives thereof) of such taxa inform the CITES Secretariat and prospective importing countries of their preferred published taxonomic authority. ‘Taxonomic authority’ means a recent published paper or monograph that reviews the nomenclature of the taxon being exported and that has been reviewed by professionals in the pertinent discipline. In cases where specimens of the taxon are exported from several countries and the exporting countries do not agree, or the exporting and importing countries do not agree, on the taxonomic authority, the Animals or Plants Committee should determine the most appropriate taxonomic authority, until a formal recommendation to the Conference of the Parties is made. The Animals or Plants Committee shall include this interim decision in its report to the Conference of the Parties, for adoption. The Secretariat shall notify the Parties about the interim decision;

i)     the Secretariat be provided with the citations (and ordering information) of checklists that will be nominated for standard references at least six months before the meeting of the Conference of the Parties at which such checklists will be considered. The Secretariat shall include such information in a Notification to the Parties so that Parties can obtain copies to review if they wish before the meeting;

j)     final recommendations to update current or adopt new standard nomenclatural references should be made available 150 days prior to every meeting of the Conference of the Parties; and

k)    when the Animals or Plants Committee recommends a change in the name of a taxon to be used in the Appendices, it also provide an evaluation of the implications for the implementation of the Convention;

RECOMMENDS the following procedure for updating current standard nomenclatural references and adoption of new ones:

a)    the process for updating current standard nomenclatural references and adoption of new ones shall be initiated directly by the Animals or Plants Committee on their own initiative or by the submission of a proposal to the Committees by:

       i)     one or more Parties; or

       ii)    the Secretariat, on its own initiative or in response to information it has received from the Parties; and

b)    proposed changes shall be based on recognized taxonomic publications. In the case where a proposed amendment to the nomenclatural status of a taxon is still under discussion, the new taxonomy should not be adopted;

RESOLVES that the Secretariat, in consultation with the Animals or Plants Committee, may make orthographical changes in the lists of species included in the Appendices to the Convention, without consulting the Conference of the Parties, and shall inform the Parties of those changes;

DIRECTS the Secretariat, in close cooperation with the nomenclature specialists of the Animals and Plants Committees, and in the implementation of its memoranda of understanding or cooperation, or programmes of work with other biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements, to consider ways of harmonizing the taxonomy and nomenclature of species included in their respective provisions;

ADOPTS the taxonomic and nomenclatural references listed in the Annex to this Resolution as the official standard references for species included in the Appendices;

RECOGNIZES the Checklist of CITES species, compiled by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2005, and its updates, as an official digest of scientific names contained in the standard references, that fully reflects the taxonomy and nomenclature contained in the original species proposals, the recommendations of the Animals or Plants Committee and all accepted names included in the standard references that have been adopted by the Conference of the Parties for species included in the Appendices;

AGREES that the adoption of a standard checklist or reference by the Conference of the Parties does not by itself change the status vis-à-vis CITES of any entity, whether it is listed in the Appendices or not, and the status of the entity remains as intended in the proposal adopted by the Conference unless specifically changed by the adoption of a further amendment proposal;

URGES Parties to assign to their Scientific Authorities the principal responsibility for:

a)    interpretation of the listings;

b)    consultation with the Animals or Plants Committee as appropriate;

c)    identification of nomenclatural issues that may warrant further review by the appropriate CITES committee and preparation of proposals to amend the Appendices if appropriate; and

d)    supporting and cooperating in the development and maintenance of the checklists;

REQUESTS the Secretariat to make each standard reference for Orchidaceae available to the Parties immediately after its completion;

DIRECTS the Secretariat, in close cooperation with the nomenclature specialists of the Animals and Plants Committees, to promote harmonization of the taxonomy and nomenclature used by biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements; and

REPEALS Resolution Conf. 11.22 (Gigiri, 2000) – Standard nomenclature.


List of standard references adopted by the Conference of the Parties



Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. (ed.) (2005): Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition, Vol. 1-2, xxxv + 2142 pp. Baltimore (John Hopkins University Press). [for all mammals – with the exception of the recognition of the following names for wild forms of species (in preference to names for domestic forms): Bos gaurus, Bos mutus, Bubalus arnee, Equus africanus, Equus przewalskii, Ovis orientalis ophion; and with the exception of the species mentioned below]

Beasly, I., Robertson, K. M. & Arnold, P. W. (2005): Description of a new dolphin, the Australian Snubfin Dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni sp. n. (Cetacea, Delphinidae). --Marine Mammal Science, 21(3): 365-400. [for Orcaella heinsohni]

Boubli, J. P., Da Silva, M. N. F., Amado, M. V., Hrbek, T., Pontual, F. B. & Farias, I. P. (2008): A taxonomic reassessment of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. – International Journal of Primatology, 29: 723-741. [for Cacajao ayresi, C. hosomi]

Brandon- Jones, D., Eudey, A. A., Geissmann, T., Groves, C. P., Melnick, D. J., Morales J. C., Shekelle, M. & Steward, C.-B. (2004): Asian primate classification. - International Journal of Primatology, 25: 97-163. [for Trachypithecus villosus]

Caballero, S., Trujillo, F., Vianna, J. A., Barrios-Garrido, H., Montiel, M. G., Beltrán-Pedreros, S., Marmontel, M., Santos, M. C., Rossi-Santos, M. R. & Baker, C. S. (2007). Taxonomic status of the genus Sotalia: species level ranking for "tucuxi" (Sotalia fluviatilis) and "costero" (Sotalia guianensis) dolphins. Marine Mammal Science 23: 358-386 [for Sotalia fluviatilis and Sotalia guianensis]

Davenport, T. R. B., Stanley, W. T., Sargis, E. J., de Luca, D. W., Mpunga, N. E., Machaga, S. J. & Olson, L. E. (2006): A new genus of African monkey, Rungwecebus: Morphology, ecology, and molecular phylogenetics. – Science,312: 1378-1381. [for Rungwecebus kipunji]

Defler, T. R. & Bueno, M. L. (2007): Aotus diversity and the species problem. – Primate Conservation, 22: 55-70. [for Aotus jorgehernandezi]

Defler, T. R., Bueno, M. L. & García, J. (2010): Callicebus caquetensis: a new and Critically Endangered titi monkey from southern Caquetá, Colombia. – Primate Conservation, 25: 1-9. [for Callicebus caquetensis]

Ferrari, S. F., Sena, L., Schneider, M. P. C. & Júnior, J. S. S. (2010): Rondon’s Marmoset, Mico rondoni sp. n., from southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. – International Journal of Primatology, 31: 693-714. [for Mico rondoni]

Geismann, T., Lwin, N. , Aung, S. S., Aung, T. N., Aung, Z. M., Hla, T. H., Grindley, M. & Momberg, F. (2011): A new species of snub-nosed monkey, genus RhinopithecusMilne-Edwards, 1872 (Primates, Colobinae), from Northern Kachin State, Northeastern Myanmar. – Amer. J. Primatology ,7396-107. [for Rhinopithecus strykeri]

Merker, S. & Groves, C.P. (2006): Tarsius lariang: A new primate species from Western Central Sulawesi. – International Journal of Primatology, 27(2): 465-485. [forTarsius lariang]

Oliveira, M. M. de & Langguth, A. (2006): Rediscovery of Marcgrave’s Capuchin Monkey and designation of a neotype for Simia flava Schreber, 1774 (Primates, Cebidae). – Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zoologia,523: 1-16. [for Cebus flavius]

Rice, D. W., (1998): Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution, Society of Marine Mammalogy Special Publication Number 4, The Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas [for Physeter macrocephalus and Platanista gangetica]

Shekelle, M., Groves, C., Merker, S. & Supriatna, J. (2010): Tarsius tumpara: A new tarsier species from Siau Island, North Sulawesi. – Primate Conservation,23: 55-64. [for Tarsius tumpara]

Sinha, A., Datta, A., Madhusudan, M. D. & Mishra, C. (2005): Macaca munzala: A new species from western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. – International Journal of Primatology,26(4): 977-989: doi:10.1007/s10764-005-5333-3. [for Macaca munzala]

Van Ngoc Thinh, Mootnick, A. R., Vu Ngoc Thanh, Nadler, T. & Roos, C. (2010): A new species of crested gibbon from the central Annamite mountain range. Vietnamese Journal of Primatology,4: 1-12. [for Nomascus annamensis]

Wada, S., Oishi, M. & Yamada, T. K. (2003): A newly discovered species of living baleen whales. – Nature, 426: 278-281. [for Balaenoptera omurai]

Wallace, R. B., Gómez, H., Felton, A. & Felton, A. (2006): On a new species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas (Primates, Pitheciidae), from western Bolivia with preliminary notes on distribution and abundance. – Primate Conservation,20: 29-39. [for Callicebus aureipalatii]

Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. (1993): Mammal Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second edition. xviii + 1207 pp., Washington (Smithsonian Institution Press). [for Loxodonta africana, Puma concolor, Lama guanicoe and Ovis vignei]


Morony, J. J., Bock, W. J. & Farrand, J., Jr. (1975): Reference List of the Birds of the World. American Museum of Natural History. 207 pp. [for order- and family-level names for birds]

Dickinson, E.C. (ed.) (2003): The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Revised and enlarged 3rd Edition. 1039 pp. London (Christopher Helm). [for all bird species – except for the taxa mentioned below and for Lophura imperialis, specimens of which should be treated as specimens of L. edwardsi]

Dickinson, E.C. (2005): Corrigenda 4 (02.06.2005) to Howard & Moore Edition 3 (2003). (available on the CITES website) [together with Dickinson 2003 for all bird species – except for the taxa mentioned below]

Arndt, T. (2008): Anmerkungen zu einigen Pyrrhura-Formen mit der Beschreibung einer neuen Art und zweier neuer Unterarten. – Papageien, 8: 278-286. [for Pyrrhura parvifrons]

Collar, N. J. (1997) Family Psittacidae (Parrots). In del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds.), Handbook of the Birds of the World, 4 (Sandgrouse to Cuckoos): 280-477. Barcelona (Lynx Edicions). [for Psittacula intermedia and Trichoglossus haematodus]

Collar, N. J. (2006): A partial revision of the Asian babblers (Timaliidae). – Forktail,22: 85-112. [for Garrulax taewanus]

Cortés-Diago, A., Ortega, L. A., Mazariegos-Hurtado, L. & Weller, A.-A. (2007): A new species of Eriocnemis (Trochilidae) from southwest Colombia. -- Ornitologia Neotropical, 18: 161-170. [for Eriocnemis isabellae]

da Silva, J. M. C., Coelho, G. & Gonzaga, P. (2002): Discovered on the brink of extinction: a new species of pygmy owl (Strigidae: Glaucidium) from Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil. – Ararajuba, 10(2): 123-130. [for Glaucidium mooreorum]

Gaban-Lima, R., Raposo, M. A. & Hofling, E. (2002):Description of a new species of Pionopsitta (Aves: Psittacidae) endemic to Brazil. – Auk, 119: 815-819. [forPionopsitta aurantiocephala]

Indrawan, M. & Somadikarta, S. (2004): A new hawk-owl from the Togian Islands, Gulf of Tomini, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. -- Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 124: 160-171. [for Ninox burhani]

Nemesio, A. & Rasmussen, C. (2009): The rediscovery of Buffon’s “Guarouba” or “Perriche jaune”: two senior synonyms of Aratinga pintoi Silveira, lima & Höfling, 2005 (Aves: Psittaciformes). – Zootaxa, 2013: 1-16. [for Aratinga maculata]

Olmos, F., Silva, W. A. G. & Albano, C. (2005: Grey-breasted Conure Pyrrhura griseipectus, an overlooked endangered species. - Cotinga,24: 77-83. [for Pyrrhura griseipectus]

Pacheco, J. F. & Whitney, B. M. (2006): Mandatory changes to the scientific names of three Neotropical birds. - Bull. Brit. Orn. Club,126: 242-244. [for Chlorostilbon lucidus, Forpus modestus]

Parry, S. J., Clark, W. S. & Prakash, V. (2002) On the taxonomic status of the Indian Spotted Eagle Aquila hastata. – Ibis, 144: 665-675. [for Aquila hastata]

Piacentini, V. Q., Aleixo, A. & Silveira, L. F. (2009): Hybrid, subspecies or species? The validity and taxonomic status of Phaethornis longuemareus aethopyga Zimmer, 1950 (Trochilidae). - Auk,126: 604-612. [for Phaethornis aethopyga]

Porter, R. F. & Kirwan, G. M. (2010): Studies of Socotran birds VI. The taxonomic status of the Socotra Buzzard. – Bulletin of the British Ornithologists‘ Club,130 (2): 116–131. [for Buteo socotraensis]

Roselaar, C. S. & Michels, J. P. (2004): Nomenclatural chaos untangled, resulting in the naming of the formally undescribed Cacatua species from the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae). -- Zoologische Verhandelingen, 350: 183-196. [for Cacatua goffiniana]

Warakagoda, D. H. & Rasmussen, P. C. (2004): A new species of scops-owl from Sri Lanka. – Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, 124(2): 85-105. [for Otus thilohoffmanni]

Whittaker, A. (2002): A new species of forest-falcon (Falconidae: Micrastur) from southeastern Amazonia and the Atlantic rainforests of Brazil. – Wilson Bulletin, 114: 421-445. [for Micrastur mintoni]


Andreone, F., Mattioli, F., Jesu, R. & Randrianirina, J. E. (2001): Two new chameleons of the genus Calumma from north-east Madagascar, with observations on hemipenial morphology in the Calumma furcifer group (Reptilia, Squamata, Chamaeleonidae) – Herpetological Journal, 11: 53‑68. [for Calumma vatosoa andCalumma vencesi]

Avila Pires, T. C. S. (1995): Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata) – Zoologische Verhandelingen, 299: 706 pp. [for Tupinambis]

Barej, M. F., Ineich, I., Gvoždík, V. Lhermitte-Vallarino, N., Gonwouo, N. L., LeBreton, M., Bott, U. & Schmitz, A. (2010): Insights into chameleons of the genus Trioceros(Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) in Cameroon, with the resurrection of Chamaeleo serratus Mertens, 1922. – Bonn zool. Bull., 57(2): 211-229. [for Trioceros perretti, Trioceros serratus]

Berghof, H.-P. & Trautmann, G. (2009): Eine neue Art der Gattung Phelsuma Gray, 1825 (Sauria: Gekkonidae) von der Ostküste Madagaskars. – Sauria,31 (1): 5-14. [forPhelsuma hoeschi]

Böhle, A. & Schönecker, P. (2003): Eine neue Art der Gattung Uroplatus Duméril, 1805 aus Ost-Madagaskar (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae). – Salamandra, 39(3/4): 129-138. [for Uroplatus pietschmanni]

Böhme, W. (1997): Eine neue Chamäleon-Art aus der Calumma gastrotaenia – Verwandtschaft Ost-Madagaskars – Herpetofauna (Weinstadt), 19 (107): 5-10. [forCalumma glawi]

Böhme, W. (2003): Checklist of the living monitor lizards of the world (family Varanidae) – Zoologische Verhandelingen. Leiden, 341: 1-43. [for Varanidae]

Branch, W. R. & Tolley, K. A. (2010: A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Nadzikambia) from Mount Mabu, central Mozambique. – Afr. J. Herpetology, 59(2): 157-172. doi: 10.1080/21564574.2010.516275. [for Nadzikambia baylissi]

Branch, W. R. (2007): A new species of tortoise of the genus Homopus (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from southern Namibia. – African Journal of Herpetology, 56(1): 1-21. [for Homopus solus]

Branch, W. R., Tolley, K. A. & Tilbury, C. R. (2006): A new Dwarf Chameleon (Sauria: Bradypodion Fitzinger, 1843) from the Cape Fold Mountains, South Africa. – African Journal Herpetology, 55(2): 123-141. [for Bradypodion atromontanum]

Broadley, D. G. (1999): The southern African python, Python natalensis A. Smith 1840, is a valid species. –African Herp News 29: 31-32. [for Python natalensis]

Broadley, D. G. (2006): CITES Standard reference for the species of Cordylus (Cordylidae, Reptilia) prepared at the request of the CITES Nomenclature Committee [forCordylus]

Burton, F. J. (2004): Revision to Species Cyclura nubila lewisi, the Grand Cayman Blue Iguana – Caribbean Journal of Science, 40(2): 198-203. [for Cyclura lewisi]

Cei, J. M. (1993): Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina – herpetofauna de las selvas subtropicales, Puna y Pampa – Monografie XIV, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali. [for Tupinambis]

Colli, G. R., Péres, A. K. & da Cunha, H. J. (1998): A new species of Tupinambis (Squamata: Teiidae) from central Brazil, with an analysis of morphological and genetic variation in the genus – Herpetologica 54: 477-492. [for Tupinambis cerradensis]

Crottini, A., Gehring, P.-S., Glaw, F., Harris, D.J., Lima, A. & Vences, M. (2011): Deciphering the cryptic species diversity of dull-coloured day geckos Phelsuma(Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar, with description of a new species. – Zootaxa, 2982: 40-48. [for Phelsuma gouldi]

Dirksen, L. (2002): Anakondas. NTV Wissenschaft. [for Eunectes beniensis]

Domínguez, M., Moreno, L. V. & Hedges, S. B. (2006): A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from the Guanahacabibes Peninsula of Western Cuba. –Amphibia-Reptilia, 27 (3): 427-432. [for Tropidophis xanthogaster]

Ennen, J. R., Lovich, J. E., Kreiser, B. R., Selman, W. & Qualls, C. P. (2010): Genetic and morphological variation between populations of the Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) in the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers with description of a new species. – Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 9(1): 98-113. [for Graptemys pearlensis]

Fitzgerald, L. A., Cook, J. A. & Luz Aquino, A. (1999): Molecular Phylogenetics and Conservation of Tupinambis (Sauria: Teiidae). – Copeia, 4: 894-905. [for Tupinambis duseni]

Fritz, U. & Havaš, P. (2007): Checklist of Chelonians of the World. – Vertebrate Zoology, 57(2): 149‑368. Dresden. ISSN 1864-5755 [without its appendix; for Testudines for species and family names – with the exception of the retention of the following names Mauremys iversoni, Mauremys pritchardi, Ocadia glyphistoma, Ocadia philippeni, Sacalia pseudocellata]

Gehring, P.-S., Pabijan, M., Ratsoavina, F. M., Köhler, J., Vences, M. & Glaw, F. (2010): A Tarzan yell for conservation: a new chameleon, Calumma tarzan sp. n., proposed as a flagship species for the creation of new nature reserves in Madagascar. – Salamandra, 46(3): 167-179. [for Calumma tarzan]

Gehring, P.-S., Ratsoavina, F. M., Vences, M. & Glaw, F. (2011): Calumma vohibola, a new chameleon species (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the littoral forests of eastern Madagascar. – Afr. J. Herpetology, 60(2): 130-154. [for Calumma vohibola]

Gentile, G. & Snell, H. (2009): Conolophus marthae sp. nov. (Squamata, Iguanidae), a new species of land iguana from the Galápagos archipelago. – Zootaxa, 2201: 1-10. [for Conolophus marthae]

Glaw, F., Gehring, P.-S., Köhler, J., Franzen, M. & Vences, M. (2010): A new dwarf species of day gecko, genus Phelsuma, from the Ankarana pinnacle karst in northern Madagascar. – Salamandra,46: 83-92. [for Phelsuma roesleri]

Glaw, F., Köhler, J. & Vences, M. (2009a): A new species of cryptically coloured day gecko (Phelsuma) from the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park in western Madagascar. – Zootaxa, 2195: 61-68. [for Phelsuma borai]

Glaw, F., Köhler, J. & Vences, M. (2009b): A distinctive new species of chameleon of the genus Furcifer (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the Montagne d’Ambre rainforest of northern Madagascar. – Zootaxa, 2269: 32-42. [for Furcifer timoni]

Glaw, F., Kosuch, J., Henkel, W. F., Sound, P. and Böhme, W. (2006): Genetic and morphological variation of the leaf-tailed gecko Uroplatus fimbriatus from Madagascar, with description of a new giant species. – Salamandra, 42: 129-144. [for Uroplatus giganteus]

Glaw, F. & M. Vences (2007): A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar, third edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, 496 pp. [for Brookesia ramanantsoai,Calumma ambreense]

Glaw, F., Vences, M., Ziegler, T., Böhme, W. & Köhler, J. (1999). Specific distinctiveness and biogeography of the dwarf chameleons Brookesia minimaB. peyrierasi andB. tuberculata (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae): evidence from hemipenial and external morphology. – J. Zool. Lond. 247: 225-238. [for Brookesia peyrierasi, B. tuberculata]

Hallmann, G., Krüger, J. & Trautmann, G. (2008). Faszinierende Taggeckos. Die Gattung Phelsuma. 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage, 253 pp., Münster (Natur und Tier – Verlag). ISBN 978-3-86659-059-5. [for Phelsuma spp., however, with the retention of Phelsuma ocellata]

Harvey, M. B., Barker, D. B., Ammerman, L. K. & Chippindale, P. T. (2000): Systematics of pythons of the Morelia amethistina complex (Serpentes: Boidae) with the description of three new species – Herpetological Monographs, 14: 139-185. [for Morelia clastolepis, Morelia nauta and Morelia tracyae, and elevation to species level ofMorelia kinghorni]

Hedges, B. S. & Garrido, O. (1999): A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from central Cuba – Journal of Herpetology, 33: 436-441. [for Tropidophis spiritus]

Hedges, B. S. & Garrido, O. (2002): A new snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from Eastern Cuba – Journal of Herpetology, 36:157-161. [for Tropidophis hendersoni]

Hedges, B. S., Estrada, A. R. & Diaz, L. M. (1999): New snake (Tropidophis) from western Cuba – Copeia 1999(2): 376-381. [for Tropidophis celiae]

Hedges, B. S., Garrido, O. & Diaz, L. M. (2001): A new banded snake of the genus Tropidophis (Tropidophiidae) from north-central Cuba – Journal of Herpetology,35: 615-617. [for Tropidophis morenoi]

Henderson, R. W., Passos, P. & Feitosa, D. (2009); Geographic variation in the Emerald Treeboa, Corallus caninus (Squamata: Boidae). – Copeia, 2009 (3): 572-582. [ for Corallus batesii]

Hollingsworth, B. D. (2004): The Evolution of Iguanas: An Overview of Relationships and a Checklist of Species. pp. 19-44. In: Alberts, A. C., Carter, R. L., Hayes, W. K. & Martins, E. P. (Eds), Iguanas: Biology and Conservation. Berkeley (University of California Press). [for Iguanidae except for the recognition of Brachylophus bulabula, Phrynosoma blainvillii, P. cerroense and P. wigginsi as valid species]

Jacobs, H. J., Auliya, M. & Böhme, W. (2009): Zur Taxonomie des Dunklen Tigerpythons, Python molurus bivittatus KUHL, 1820, speziell der Population von Sulawesi. – Sauria, 31: 5-16. [for Python bivittatus]

Jesu, R., Mattioli, F. & Schimenti, G. (1999): On the discovery of a new large chameleon inhabiting the limestone outcrops of western Madagascar: Furcifer nicosiai sp. nov. (Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae) – Doriana 7(311): 1-14. [for Furcifer nicosiai]

Keogh, J. S., Barker, D. G. & Shine, R. 2001. Heavily exploited but poorly known: systematics and biogeography of commercially harvested pythons (Python curtus group) in Southeast Asia – Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 73: 113-129. [for Python breitensteini and Python brongersmai]

Keogh, J. S., Edwards, D. L., Fisher, R. N. & Harlow, P. S. (2008): Molecular and morphological analysis of the critically endangered Fijian iguanas reveals cryptic diversity and a complex biogeographic history. – Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 363(1508): 3413-3426. [for Brachylophus bulabula]

Klaver, C. J. J. & Böhme, W. (1997): Chamaeleonidae – Das Tierreich, 112, 85 pp. [for Bradypodion, Brookesia, Calumma, Chamaeleo and Furcifer – except for the Bradypodion species changed to Kinyongia and Nadzikambia, and except for the recognition of Calumma andringitraenseC. guillaumetiC. hilleniusi andC. marojezense as valid species]

Kluge, A.G. (1983): Cladistic relationships among gekkonid lizards. – Copeia, 1983 (no. 2): 465-475. [for Nactus serpensinsula]

Koch, A., Auliya, M. & Ziegler, T. (2010): Updated Checklist of the living monitor lizards of the world (Squamata: Varanidae). - Bonn zool. Bull., 57(2): 127-136. [for Varanidae]

Krause, P. & Böhme, W. (2010): A new chameleon of the Trioceros bitaeniatus complex from Mt. Hanang, Tanzania, East Africa (Squamata, Chamaeleonidae). – Bonn Zoological Bulletin,57: 19-29. [for Trioceros hanangensis]

Lanza, B. & Nistri, A. (2005): Somali Boidae (genus Eryx Daudin 1803) and Pythonidae (genus Python Daudin 1803) (Reptilia Serpentes). – Tropical Zoology,18 (1): 67-136. [for Eryx borrii]

Lutzmann, N. & Lutzmann, H. (2004): Das grammatikalische Geschlecht der Gattung Calumma (Chamaeleonidae) und die nötigen Anpassungen einiger Art- und Unterartbezeichnungen. – Reptilia (Münster) 9(4): 4-5 (Addendum in issue 5: 13). [for Calumma cucullatum, Calumma nasutum]

Manzani, P. R. & Abe, A. S. (1997): A new species of Tupinambis Daudin, 1802 (Squamata, Teiidae) from central Brazil – Boletim do Museu Nacional Nov. Ser. Zool.,382: 1-10. [for Tupinambis quadrilineatus]

Manzani, P. R. & Abe, A. S. (2002): A new species of Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 from southeastern Brazil – Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 60(4): 295-302. [for Tupinambis palustris]

Mariaux, J., Lutzmann, N. & Stipala, J. (2008): The two-horned chamaeleons of East Africa. – Zoological Journal Linnean Society, 152: 367-391. [for Kinyongia vosseleri, Kinyongia boehmei]

Massary, J.-C. de & Hoogmoed, M. (2001): The valid name for Crocodilurus lacertinus auctorum (nec Daudin, 1802) (Squamata: Teiidae) – Journal of Herpetology, 35: 353-357. [for Crocodilurus amazonicus]

McDiarmid, R. W., Campbell, J. A. & Touré, T. A. (1999): Snake Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference.Volume 1, Washington, DC. (The Herpetologists’ League). [for Loxocemidae, Pythonidae, Boidae, Bolyeriidae, Tropidophiidae and Viperidae – except for the retention of the genera Acrantophis, Sanzinia, Calabaria and Lichanura and the recognition of Epicrates maurus and Tropidophis xanthogasteras valid species]

Menegon, M.,Tolley, K. A., Jones, T., Rovero, F., Marshall, A. R. & Tilbury, C. R. (2009): A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia) from the Magombera forest and the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania. – African Journal of Herpetology,58(2): 59-70. [for Kinyongia magomberae]

Montanucci, R.R. (2004): Geographic variation in Phrynosoma coronatum (Lacertilia, Phrynosomatidae): further evidence for a peninsular archipelago. – Herpetologica, 60: 117. [for Phrynosoma blainvillii, Phrynosoma cerroense, Phrynosoma wigginsi]

Murphy, R. W., Berry, K. H., Edwards, T., Leviton, A. E., Lathrop, A. & Riedle, J. D. (2011): The dazed and confused identity of Agassiz’s land tortoise, Gopherus agassizii(Testudines, Testudinidae) with the description of a new species, and its consequences for conservation. – Zookeys,113: 39-71. [for Gopherus morafkai]

Necas, P. (2009): Ein neues Chamäleon der Gattung Kinyongia Tilbury, Tolley & Branch 2006 aus den Poroto-Bergen, Süd-Tansania (Reptilia: Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). – Sauria, 31 (2): 41-48. [for Kinyongia vanheygeni]

Necas, P., Modry, D. & Slapeta, J. R. (2003): Chamaeleo (Tricerosnarraioca n. sp. (Reptilia Chamaeleonidae), a new chamaeleon species from a relict montane forest of Mount Kulal, northern Kenya. – Tropical Zool., 16:1-12. [for Chamaeleo narraioca]

Necas, P., Modry, D. & Slapeta, J. R. (2005): Chamaeleo (Tricerosntunte n. sp. a new chamaeleon species from Mt. Nyiru, northern Kenya (Squamata: Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). – Herpetozoa, 18/3/4): 125-132. [for Chamaeleo ntunte]

Necas, P., Sindaco, R., Kořený, L., Kopečná, J., Malonza, P. K. & Modry, D. (2009): Kinyongia asheorum sp. n., a new montane chameleon from the Nyiro Range, northern Kenya (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). – Zootaxa,2028: 41-50. [for Kinyongia asheorum]

Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. (2008): Revision of the Epicrates cenchria complex (Serpentes: Boidae). – Herpetol. Monographs,22: 1-30. [for Epicrates crassus, E. assisi, E. alvarezi]

Pough, F. H., Andrews, R. M., Cadle, J. E., Crump, M. L., Savitzky, A. H. & Wells, K. D. (1998): Herpetology. Upper Saddle River/New Jersey (Prentice Hall). [for delimitation of families within the Sauria]

Praschag, P., Hundsdörfer, A. K. & Fritz, U. (2007): Phylogeny and taxonomy of endangered South and South-east Asian freshwater turtles elucidates by mtDNA sequence variation (Testudines: Geoemydidae: Batagur, Callagur, Hardella, Kachuga, Pangshura). -- Zoologica Scripta, 36: 429‑442. [for Batagur borneoensis, Batagur dhongoka, Batagur kachuga, Batagur trivittata]

Praschag, P., Hundsdörfer, A.K., Reza, A.H.M.A. & Fritz, U. (2007): Genetic evidence for wild-living Aspideretes nigricans and a molecular phylogeny of South Asian softshell turtles (Reptilia: Trionychidae: Aspideretes, Nilssonia). - Zoologica Scripta, 36:301-310. [for Nilssonia gangeticus, N. hurum, N. nigricans]

Praschag, P., Sommer, R. S., Mccarthy, C., Gemel, R. & Fritz, U. (2008): Naming one of the world's rarest chelonians, the southern Batagur. – Zootaxa, 1758: 61-68. [forBatagur affinis]

Praschag, P., Stuckas, H., Päckert, M., Maran, J. & Fritz, U. (2011): Mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest a revised taxonomy of Asian flapshell turtles (Lissemys Smith, 1931) and the validity of previously unrecognized taxa (Testudines: Trionychidae). – Vertebrate Zoology, 61(1): 147-160. [for Lissemys ceylonensis]

Ratsoavina, F.M., Louis jr., E.E., Crottini, A., Randrianiaina, R.-D., Glaw, F. & Vences, M. (2011): A new leaf tailed gecko species from northern Madagascar with a preliminary assessment of molecular and morphological variability in the Uroplatus ebenaui group. – Zootaxa,3022: 39-57. [for Uroplatus finiavana]

Raw, L. & Brothers, D. J. (2008): Redescription of the South African dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion nemorale Raw 1978 (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), and description of two new species. – ZooNova 1 (1): 1-7. [for Bradypodion caeruleogula, Bradypodion nkandlae]

Raxworthy, C.J. & Nussbaum, R.A. (2006): Six new species of Occipital-Lobed Calumma Chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from Montane Regions of Madagascar, with a New Description and Revision of Calumma brevicorne. – Copeia, 4: 711-734. [for Calumma amber, Calumma brevicorne, Calumma crypticum, Calumma hafahafa, Calumma jejy, Calumma peltierorum, Calumma tsycorne]

Raxworthy, C.J. (2003): Introduction to the reptiles. – In: Goodman, S.M. & Bernstead, J.P. (eds.), The natural history of Madagascar, : 934-949. Chicago. [for Uroplatusspp.]

Raxworthy, C.J., Pearson, R.G., Zimkus, B.M., Reddy, S., Deo, A.J., Nussbaum, R.A. & Ingram,C.M. (2008): Continental speciation in the tropics: contrasting biogeographic patterns of divergence in the Uroplatus leaf-tailed gecko radiation of Madagascar. Journal of Zoology 275: 423–440. [for Uroplatus sameiti]

Rocha, S., Rösler, H., Gehring, P.-S., Glaw, F., Posada, D., Harris, D. J. & Vences, M. (2010): Phylogenetic systematics of day geckos, genus Phelsuma, based on molecular and morphological data (Squamata: Gekkonidae). – Zootaxa,2429: 1-28. [for Phelsuma dorsovittata, P. parva]

Schleip, W. D. (2008): Revision of the genus Leiopython Hubrecht 1879 (Serpentes: Pythonidae) with the redescription of taxa recently described by Hoser (2000) and the description of new species. – Journal of Herpetology,42(4): 645–667. [for Leiopython bennettorum, L. biakensis, L. fredparkeri, L. huonensis, L. hoserae]

Slowinski, J. B. & Wüster, W. (2000.): A new cobra (Elapidae: Naja) from Myanmar (Burma) – Herpetologica, 56: 257-270. [for Naja mandalayensis]

Smith, H. M., Chiszar, D., Tepedelen, K. & van Breukelen, F. (2001): A revision of the bevelnosed boas (Candoia carinata complex) (Reptilia: Serpentes). – Hamadryad,26(2): 283-315. [for Candoia paulsoni, C. superciliosa]

Stipala, J., Lutzmann, N., Malonza, P.K., Borghesio, L., Wilkinson, P., Godley, B. & Evans, M.R. (2011): A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from the highlands of northwest Kenya. – Zootaxa,3002: 1-16. [for Trioceros nyirit]

Tilbury, C. (1998): Two new chameleons (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from isolated Afromontane forests in Sudan and Ethiopia – Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 47: 293-299. [for Chamaeleo balebicornutus and Chamaeleo conirostratus]

Tilbury, C. R. & Tolley, K. A. (2009a): A new species of dwarf chameleon (Sauria; Chamaeleonidae, Bradypodion Fitzinger) from KwaZulu Natal South Africa with notes on recent climatic shifts and their influence on speciation in the genus. – Zootaxa,2226: 43-57. [for Bradypodion ngomeense, B. nkandlae]

Tilbury, C. R. & Tolley, K. A. (2009b): A re-appraisal of the systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). – Zootaxa,2079: 57-68. [forTrioceros]

Tilbury, C. R., Tolley, K. A. & Branch, R. B. (2007): Corrections to species names recently placed in Kinyongia and Nadzikambia (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). – Zootaxa, 1426: 68. [for correct spelling of Kinyongia uluguruensis, Nadzikambia mlanjensis]

Tilbury, C. R., Tolley, K. A. & Branch, W. R. (2006): A review of the systematics of the genus Bradypodion (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with the description of two new genera. – Zootaxa, 1363: 23-38. [for Kinyongia adolfifriderici, Kinyongia carpenteri, Kinyongia excubitor, Kinyongia fischeri, Kinyongia matschiei, Kinyongia multituberculata, Kinyongia oxyrhina, Kinyongia tavetana, Kinyongia tenuis, Kinyongia ulugurensis, Kinyongia uthmoelleri, Kinyongia xenorhina, Nadzikambia mlanjense]

Tolley, K. A., Tilbury, C. R., Branch, W. R. & Mathee, C. A. (2004): Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). –Molecular Phylogen. Evol., 30: 351-365. [for Bradypodion caffrum, Bradypodion damaranum, Bradypodion gutturale, Bradypodion occidentale, Bradypodion taeniobronchum, Bradypodion transvaalense, Bradypodion ventrale]

Townsend, T. M., Tolley, K. A., Glaw, F., Böhme, W. & Vences, M. (2010): Eastward from Africa: paleocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the Seychelles Islands. – Biol. Lett., published online 8 September 2010, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2010.0701 [for Archaius tigris]

Tucker, A. D. (2010): The correct name to be applied to the Australian freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus johnstoni [Krefft, 1873]. – Australian Zoologist,35(2): 432-434. [forCrocodylus johnstoni]

Ullenbruch, K., Krause, P. & Böhme, W. (2007): A new species of the Chamaeleo dilepis group (Sauria Chamaeleonidae) from West Africa. – Tropical Zool., 20: 1-17. [forChamaeleo necasi]

Walbröl, U. & Walbröl, H. D. (2004): Bemerkungen zur Nomenklatur der Gattung Calumma (Gray, 1865) (Reptilia: Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). – Sauria, 26 (3): 41-44. [for Calumma andringitraense, Calumma marojezense, Calumma tsaratananense]

Wermuth, H. & Mertens, R. (1996) (reprint): Schildkröte, Krokodile, Brückenechsen. xvii + 506 pp. Jena (Gustav Fischer Verlag). [for Testudines order names, Crocodylia and Rhynchocephalia]

Wilms, T. M., Böhme, W., Wagner, P., Lutzmann, N. & Schmitz, A. (2009): On the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Uromastyx Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae: Uromastycinae) – resurrection of the genus Saara Gray, 1845. – Bonner zool. Beiträge,56(1-2): 55-99. [for Uromastyx, Saara]

Wüster, W. (1996): Taxonomic change and toxinology: systematic revisions of the Asiatic cobras (Naja naja species complex) – Toxicon, 34: 339-406. [for Naja atra, Naja kaouthia, Naja oxiana, Naja philippinensis, Naja sagittifera, Naja samarensis, Naja siamensis, Naja sputatrix and Naja sumatrana]

Zug, G.R., Grotte, S. W. & Jacobs, J. F. (2011): Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata). – Proc. biol. Soc. Washington,124(2): 112-136. [for Python kyaiktiyo]


Taxonomic Checklist of CITES-listed Amphibians, information extracted from Frost, D. R. (ed.) (2011), Amphibian Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference, an online reference (Version 5.5 as of December 2011) in combination with Brown, J. L., Twomey, E., Amézquita, A., Barbosa de Souza, M., Caldwell, L. P., Lötters, S., von May, R., Melo-Sampaio, P. R., Mejía-Vargas, D., Perez-Peña, P., Pepper, M., Poelman, E. H., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M. & Summers, K. (2011): A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae). – Zootaxa, 3083: 1-120. [for all Amphibian species]

Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii

Taxonomic Checklist of all CITES listed Shark and Fish species (Elasmobranchii and Actinopterygii, except the genus Hippocampus), information extracted from Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fricke, R. (eds.): Catalog of Fishes, an online reference, version downloaded 30 November 2011. [for all shark and fish species, except the genus Hippocampus]

foster, R. & gomon, M. F. (2010): A new seahorse (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from south-western Australia. – Zootaxa, 2613: 61-68. [for Hippocampus paradoxus]

Gomon, M. F. & Kuiter, R. H. (2009): Two new pygmy seahorses (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from the Indo-West Pacific. -- Aqua, Int. J. of Ichthyology, 15(1): 37-44. [for Hippocampus debelius, Hippocampus waleanus]

Horne, M. L. (2001): A new seahorse species (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from the Great Barrier Reef– Records of the Australian Museum, 53: 243-246. [forHippocampus]

Kuiter, R. H. (2001): Revision of the Australian seahorses of the genus Hippocampus (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae) with a description of nine new species– Records of the Australian Museum, 53: 293-340. [for Hippocampus]

Kuiter, R. H. (2003): A new pygmy seahorse (Pisces: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus) from Lord Howe Island– Records of the Australian Museum, 55: 113-116. [forHippocampus]

Lourie, S. A. & Randall, J. E. (2003): A new pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus denise (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), from the Indo-Pacific – Zoological Studies, 42: 284-291. [forHippocampus]

Lourie, S. A., Vincent, A. C. J. & Hall, H. J. (1999): Seahorses. An identification guide to the world’s species and their conservation. Project Seahorse (ISBN 0 9534693 0 1) (Second edition available on CD-ROM). [for Hippocampus]

Lourie, S. A. & kuiter, R. H. (2008: Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus). – Zootaxa, 1963: 54-68. [forHippocampus pontohi, Hippocampus satomiae, Hippocampus severnsi]

Piacentino, G. L. M. and Luzzatto, D. C. (2004): Hippocampus patagonicus sp. nov., new seahorse from Argentina (Pisces, Syngnathiformes). -- Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 6(2): 339-349. [for Hippocampus patagonicus]

randall, J. & Lourie, S. A. (2009): Hippocampus tyro, a new seahorse (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae) from the Seychelles. – Smithiana Bulletin, 10: 19-21. [forHippocampus tyro]


Lourenço, W. R. & Cloudsley-Thompson, J. C. (1996): Recognition and distribution of the scorpions of the genus Pandinus Thorell, 1876 accorded protection by the Washington Convention – Biogeographica, 72(3): 133-143. [for scorpions of the genus Pandinus]

Rudloff, J.-P. (2008): Eine neue Brachypelma-Art aus Mexiko (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae). – Arthropoda, 16(2): 26-30. [for Brachypelma kahlenbergi]

Taxonomic Checklist of CITES listed Spider Species, information extracted from Platnick, N. (2006), The World Spider Catalog, an online reference, Version 6.5 as of 7 April 2006 [for Theraphosidae]


Bartolozzi, L. (2005): Description of two new stag beetle species from South Africa (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). -- African Entomology, 13(2): 347-352. [for Colophonendroedyi]

Matsuka, H. (2001): Natural History of Birdwing Butterflies. 367 pp. Tokyo (Matsuka Shuppan). (ISBN 4-9900697-0-6). [for birdwing butterflies of the genera Ornithoptera,Trogonoptera and Troides]


Nesemann, H. & Neubert, E. (1999): Annelida: Clitellata: Branchiobdellida, Acanthobdellea, Hirudinea. – Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa, vol. 6/2, 178 pp., Berlin (Spektrum Akad. Verlag). ISBN 3-8274-0927-6. [for Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana]

Anthozoa and Hydrozoa

Taxonomic Checklist of all CITES listed Coral Species, based on information compiled by UNEP-WCMC 2012. (See CoP16 Doc 43.1 Annex 5.1 and 5.2)


The Plant-Book, second edition, [D. J. Mabberley, 1997, Cambridge University Press (reprinted with corrections 1998)] for the generic names of all plants listed in the Appendices of the Convention, unless they are superseded by standard checklists adopted by the Conference of the Parties).

A Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns, 8th edition, (J. C. Willis, revised by H. K. Airy Shaw, 1973, Cambridge University Press) for generic synonyms not mentioned in The Plant-Book, unless they are superseded by standard checklists adopted by the Conference of the Parties as referenced below.

The World List of Cycads (D. W. Stevenson, R. Osborne and K. D. Hill, 1995; In: P. Vorster (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cycad Biology, pp. 55-64, Cycad Society of South Africa, Stellenbosch), as a guideline when making reference to names of species of Cycadaceae, Stangeriaceae and Zamiaceae.

CITES Bulb Checklist (A. P. Davis et al., 1999, compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Cyclamen (Primulaceae) and Galanthus and Sternbergia (Liliaceae).

CITES Cactaceae Checklist, second edition, (1999, compiled by D. Hunt, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) as a guideline when making reference to names of species of Cactaceae.

CITES Carnivorous Plant Checklist, (B. von Arx et al., 2001, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) as a guideline when making reference to names of species of Dionaea, Nepenthes and Sarracenia.

CITES Aloe and Pachypodium Checklist (U. Eggli et al., 2001, compiled by Städtische Sukkulenten-Sammlung, Zurich, Switzerland, in collaboration with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and its update: An Update and Supplement to the CITES Aloe & Pachypodium Checklist [J. M. Lüthy (2007), CITES Management Authority of Switzerland, Bern, Switzerland] as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Aloe andPachypodium.

World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers (A. Farjon, 2001) as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Taxus.

CITES Orchid Checklist, (compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom) as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Cattleya, Cypripedium, Laelia, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Phragmipedium, Pleione and Sophronitis (Volume 1, 1995) and Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Disa, Dracula andEncyclia (Volume 2, 1997), and Aerangis, Angraecum, Ascocentrum, Bletilla, Brassavola, Calanthe, Catasetum, Miltonia, Miltonioides and Miltoniopsis, Renanthera, Renantherella, Rhynchostylis, Rossioglossum, Vanda and Vandopsis (Volume 3, 2001); and AeridesCoelogyneComparettia and Masdevallia (Volume 4, 2006).

The CITES Checklist of Succulent Euphorbia Taxa (Euphorbiaceae), Second edition (S. Carter and U. Eggli, 2003, published by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany) as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of succulent euphorbias.

Dicksonia species of the Americas (2003, compiled by Bonn Botanic Garden and the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany) as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Dicksonia.

Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Germishuizen, G. & Meyer N. L. (eds.) (2003). Strelitzia 14: 150-151. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria, South Africa as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Hoodia.

Lista de especies, nomenclatura y distribución en el genero Guaiacum. Davila Aranda. P. & Schippmann, U. (2006): Medicinal Plant Conservation 12:50 as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Guaiacum.

CITES checklist for Bulbophyllum and allied taxa (Orchidaceae). Sieder, A., Rainer, H., Kiehn, M. (2007): Address of the authors: Department of Biogeography and Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna; Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna (Austria) as a guideline when making reference to the names of species of Bulbophyllum.


* Amended at the 13th, 14th, 15th and 16th meetings of the Conference of the Parties.
1 The publications provided in this Resolution as hyperlinks are copyrighted and may not be reproduced for commercial purposes.


Number / Code: 
Conf. 12.11 (Rev. CoP16)
COP meeting: 
Twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties